HER2 promotes early dissemination of incompletely transformed cells
How does HER2 amplification promote cancer?
However, amplification of the HER2 gene leads to overexpression of the receptor, which is linked to the development of many types of human cancers including breast, ovarian and those of the gastrointestinal tract [4, 5]. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in women.
Why is amplification of the HER2 gene oncogenic?
The HER2 oncogene is an important member of the HER family of membrane tyrosine kinases. The gene is amplified in a subset of breast cancers in which the HER network is the major driver of tumor cell proliferation and survival.
How does HER2 promote breast cancer proliferation?
Once these receptors are active, they promote proliferative and phenotype-altering cascades including the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. HER2 activation induces uncontrolled proliferation, protects against apoptosis, and disrupts normal epithelial organization in epithelial cells (Muthuswamy et al., 2001).
What is the most aggressive type of breast cancer?
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered an aggressive cancer because it grows quickly, is more likely to have spread at the time it’s found and is more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. The outlook is generally not as good as it is for other types of breast cancer.
Is HER2-positive a death sentence?
Treatment options for all stages of disease have grown and expanded, which has proven to be the “good side” of HER2-positive disease. Current treatment algorithms for invasive HER2-positive disease has transformed the face of a disease with a death sentence to one with prolonged and overall survival benefit.
Is it better to be HER2-negative or positive?
Is HER2-positive breast cancer good or bad? HER2-positive cancer tends to be poorer in terms of prognosis than HER2-negative cancer because: It grows faster. It is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes fast.
Is chemo necessary for HER2-positive?
Trastuzumab and chemotherapy are even recommended for women with very small, HER2-positive breast cancers. Tumors as small as 0.5 cm often warrant such treatment.
What triggers HER2?
In about 25 percent of breast cancers, the cancer cells have an excess of the HER2 protein. This is caused by a mutation in the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) gene. When the HER2 gene mutates, it causes cells in the breast to grow and divide at an uncontrolled rate, leading to tumor growth.
What cancers do we see HER2 overexpression in?
Amplification or overexpression of HER2 occurs in approximately 15–30% of breast cancers and 10–30% of gastric/gastroesophageal cancers and serves as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. HER2 overexpression has also been seen in other cancers like ovary, endometrium, bladder, lung, colon, and head and neck.
Is HER2 cancer aggressive?
This protein promotes the growth of cancer cells. In about 1 of every 5 breast cancers, the cancer cells have extra copies of the gene that makes the HER2 protein. HER2 -positive breast cancers tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer.
What is the longest someone has lived with Stage 4 breast cancer?
Stage 4: Kim Green Has Lived With Metastatic Breast Cancer For Past 19 Years. Kim Green defies the odds for those living with incurable metastatic breast cancer. Her mother died of metastatic breast cancer at 37, but Green has been living with it for 19 years.