What is a platinum chemotherapy?
Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (informally called platins) are chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer. They are coordination complexes of platinum. These drugs are used to treat almost half of people receiving chemotherapy for cancer.
Which drug contains platinum?
Platinum-based anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, nedaplatin, and lobaplatin, are heavily applied in chemotherapy regimens. However, the intrinsic or acquired resistance severely limit the clinical application of platinum-based treatment.
What cancers are treated with platinum?
The platinum compounds are largely used in the treatment of lung, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. The chemotherapeutic mechanism of platinum compounds is typical of DNA-binding alkylating agents. If the DNA damage exceeds the ability of the cell to repair, the cell undergoes apoptotic cell death.
Is there platinum in chemotherapy?
Platinum-based agents are important drugs or drug candidates for cancer chemotherapy. Traditional platinum drugs including the globally approved cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are neutral platinum (II) complexes with two amine ligands and two additional ligands that can be aquated for further binding with DNA.
What is the most powerful chemotherapy?
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is one of the most powerful chemotherapy drugs ever invented. It can kill cancer cells at every point in their life cycle, and it’s used to treat a wide variety of cancers.
What is the side effects of platinum?
Other common side effects include anaphylaxis, cytopenias (including leukopenia and neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anaemia), hepatotoxicity, ototoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, stomatitis, pain, alopecia, anorexia, cachexia, and asthenia.
What causes platinum resistance?
Resistance to platinum-containing drugs has been associated to several mechanisms, including alteration in drug efflux (through for example the modulation of the copper transporter CTR-1 expression) [1,2,3,4,5], alteration in intracellular proteins able to bind and sequester Pt (as for example GSH) [6,7,8,9], and …
What is platinum used for?
A shiny, silvery-white metal as resistant to corrosion as gold. Platinum is used extensively for jewellery. Its main use, however, is in catalytic converters for cars, trucks and buses. This accounts for about 50% of demand each year.
How do platinum-based chemotherapies work?
Platinum-Based Drugs (Cisplatin, Carboplatin)
These drugs form highly reactive platinum complexes that bind and crosslink DNA, a double-stranded molecule inside the nucleus of the cell that controls cellular activity. The chemical crosslinking within the DNA prevents cancer cells from growing and causes them to die.
What does it mean to be platinum sensitive?
Some cancers that respond to treatment but then come back after a certain period may also be considered platinum sensitive. For example, ovarian cancer that comes back 6 or more months after platinum-based treatment is considered platinum sensitive.
Is pemetrexed platinum-based?
Single pemetrexed is noninferior to platinum-based pemetrexed doublet as first-line treatment on elderly Chinese patients with advanced nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer.
What is platinum resistant?
Abstract. “Platinum resistant” ovarian cancer was historically defined as disease recurrence within 6months of completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, although this is now more broadly applied to also include patients progressing within 6months after multiple lines of chemotherapy.
Do platinum chemo drugs cause hair loss?
The “normal” cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur. The “normal” cells most commonly affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and the hair follicles; resulting in low blood counts, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea, and/or hair loss.
What is platinum-based doublet chemotherapy?
Third generation platinum-based chemotherapy doublets, namely combinations of a platinum compound (cisplatin or carboplatin) with one third generation agent (mainly vinorelbine, gemcitabine or taxanes), represented the cornerstone of standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC for almost a decade, …