Which type of cancer has been associated with Down syndrome?
Children with Down syndrome are particularly susceptible to two types of leukemia: acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B ALL), the most common subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Previously, population-based studies have found an excess risk of cancer in children with congenital malformations (2-5). In particular, children with Down syndrome and children with central nervous system defects are at increased risk of developing leukemia and central nervous system tumors, respectively.
Which cancer is most likely to occur in a child with congenital malformation syndrome?
The presence of a congenital anomaly is associated with increased childhood cancer risk, likely due to large effects of Down syndrome and chromosomal anomalies for leukemia.
What type of mutation causes Down syndrome quizlet?
About 95 percent of the time, Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21 — the person has three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the usual two copies, in all cells.
Can Down syndrome get cancer?
Most cancers are rare in people with Down syndrome, whose overall cancer mortality is below 10 percent of that in the general population. Since they have an extra copy of chromosome 21, it’s been proposed that people with Down syndrome may be getting an extra dose of one or more cancer-protective genes.
Which cancers are all associated with chronic inflammation?
The inflammatory diseases colitis, pancreatitis and hepatitis, for example, are linked to a greater risk of colon, pancreatic and liver cancers, respectively. In these diseases, immune cells create highly reactive molecules containing oxygen and nitrogen that can damage DNA.
Which cancer originates from connective tissue?
Sarcoma. Sarcoma refers to cancer that originates in supportive and connective tissues such as bones, tendons, cartilage, muscle, and fat. Generally occurring in young adults, the most common sarcoma often develops as a painful mass on the bone.
Which cancers pose the highest risk for radiologists?
The authors reviewed epidemiologic data on cancer risks from eight cohorts of over 270,000 radiologists and technologists in various countries. The most consistent finding was increased mortality due to leukemia among early workers employed before 1950, when radiation exposures were high.
What are two hits required to inactivate tumor suppressor genes?
Two hits are necessary to inactivate tumor suppressor genes and lead to cancer development. Promoter hypermethylation can represent the first or the second hit and lead to tumorigenesis in conjunction with point mutations or loss of heterozygosity by deletions of the functional allele.