When do you breed based on vaginal cytology?
Breeders will often start counting the days and start breeding around 9 days after the discharge is first detected. This correlates with the fact that the average length of proestrus in the bitch is around 9 days.
How do you do vaginal cytology?
The preferred method to obtain a good vaginal cytology, is the application of a cotton swab in the cranial vagina of a bitch . The lip of the vulva are gently separated with the fingers and a cotton swab is passed into the dorsal aspect of the vulva.
What are the 4 phases of the estrous cycle?
It is similar to the human reproductive cycle, commonly called the menstrual cycle (ovarian and uterine cycles). The estrous cycle has four phases, namely proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus and lasts for 4 to 5 days  (Table 1).
Does in heat mean period?
Females of most vertebrate species exhibit recurring periods of heightened sexual activity in which they are sexually attractive, proceptive and receptive to males. In mammalian females (except Old World monkeys, apes and humans), this periodic sex appeal is referred to as ‘heat’ or ‘estrus’.
What cytology is used for?
Cytology is the exam of a single cell type, as often found in fluid specimens. It’s mainly used to diagnose or screen for cancer. It’s also used to screen for fetal abnormalities, for pap smears, to diagnose infectious organisms, and in other screening and diagnostic areas.
What is vulvar inflammation?
Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva. This is the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. It’s a symptom that can result from an array of diseases. This can include infections, injuries, allergies, or irritants.
What is exfoliative cytology?
Exfoliative cytology is a non‐invasive test that uses the Tzanck smear technique to identify disease by examining the structure of cells obtained from scraped samples.
What kind of cells predominates in vaginal smear during Metestrus stage?
The cell types present in vaginal smears during this stage are fragmented, cornified epithelial cells and smaller darker stained leukocytes (Figure 1F, Figure 2, Metestrus, right panel).
What is a maturation index?
The Maturation Index (MI) is a ratio obtained by performing a random cell count of the three major cell types shed from the vaginal squamous epithelium: parabasal, intermediate, and superficial cells.