How does germ cell tumors happen?

What causes germ cell Tumours?

The cause of most germ cell tumors isn’t always known. Doctors do know that some medical conditions can make children more likely to develop them. These include: birth defects that involve the central nervous system, genitals, urinary tract, and spine.

Who gets germ cell tumors?

Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women and most often affect just one ovary. The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows).

When do germ cell tumors form?

Ovarian germ cell tumors usually develop in young women under 20, but they can grow in older women, too. Most often, a tumor only grows in one ovary. Treatment for malignant tumors includes surgery or chemotherapy.

Do germ cell tumors run in families?

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies.

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What is the survival rate of germ cell tumor?

The survival and cure rates also depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease. The cure rate for children with a stage I or stage II germ cell tumor is 90%. The cure rate for a stage III tumor is 87%. The cure rate for a stage IV tumor is 82%.

Can germ cell tumors spread?

Germ cell tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. The most common sites for metastasis are the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and central nervous system. Rarely, germ cell tumors can spread to the bone, bone marrow, and other organs.

Do germ cell tumors grow fast?

This is a germ cell tumor that is most often malignant, but may also be benign. This tumor most often affects the ovaries or testes, and the lower spine. They are often malignant and grow fast.

Are germ cell tumors rare?

Some germ cell tumors occur in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, brain and chest, though it’s not clear why. Germ cell tumors that occur in places other than the testicles and ovaries (extragonadal germ cell tumors) are very rare.

How are germ cell tumors diagnosed?

In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose a germ cell tumor:

  1. Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. …
  2. Blood tests. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). …
  3. Ultrasound. …
  4. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. …
  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

What percentage of germ cell tumors are malignant?

Malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon, representing only 3 to 10% of tumors originating in the mediastinum. They are much less common than germinal tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms.

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What are the two types of germ cell tumors?

There are two types of germ cell tumors that start in the gonads, or reproductive organs: seminomas, which are slower-growing, and nonseminomas, which are faster-growing tumors. These germ cell tumors typically form during puberty.

What are ovarian germ cell tumors?

Growths that develop in egg cells are called ovarian germ cell tumors. These tumors may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors most often occur in teenage girls and younger women. Typically, only one ovary is affected.