How many tumor suppressor genes cause cancer?
According to the American Cancer Society (2005), at least 30 different tumor suppressor genes have been identified, including those listed in Table 2. Many of these genes function to inhibit cell division and cell proliferation, stimulate cell death, and repair damaged DNA.
What causes tumor suppressor genes to turn off?
In contrast to oncogenes, which are activated by mutation of only one of the two gene copies, tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by point mutations or deletion in both alleles of the gene in a “two-hit” fashion.
Is p53 a tumor suppressor gene?
The p53 gene is a type of tumor suppressor gene. Also called TP53 gene and tumor protein p53 gene.
What is an example of a tumor suppressor gene?
Examples of tumor suppressor genes are the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes, otherwise known as the “breast cancer genes.” People who have a mutation in one of these genes have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (among other cancers). However, not everyone with the gene develops breast cancer.
What types of cancers are genetic?
Some cancers that can be hereditary are:
- Breast cancer.
- Colon cancer.
- Prostate cancer.
- Ovarian cancer.
- Uterine cancer.
- Melanoma (a type of skin cancer)
- Pancreatic cancer.
Is p21 a tumor suppressor gene?
In 1994, p21 (also known as wildtype activating factor-1/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein-1 or WAF1/CIP1) was introduced as a tumor suppressor in brain, lung, and colon cancer cells; it was shown that p21 induces tumor growth suppression through wild type p53 activity .
How do you identify tumor suppressor genes?
Classic tumor suppressor genes are defined by mutation in both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. An increasing number of candidate tumor suppressor genes are identified by somatic mutations and have not been associated with genetic predisposition.